How to create non-overlapping groups

Hello there,
I have the following issue when creating groups: I have papers concerning several regions in Europe and would like to order them accordingly. So I would like to create a group for all the papers that do NOT contain the keyword Germany. Is that possible without using the free-form search utility (Because if I used that, I wouldn’t be able to just shift papers into the respective group anymore, right?).
I tried using keywords for all the other countries and then creating a keyword-group with the keywords “England, France, Spain, Portugal, …” but for some reason JabRef doesn’t recognize that I’m trying to use multiple keywords here, although ", " is set as a separator under options/preferences/groups.

Any help would be much appreciated :slight_smile:


you are right in principle. But you can also use the Groups - negate feature, which would negate everything. So if you have a group for Germany only, and you apply the negation, it would filter all items for which this is not the case. This feature, however, has a large scope, as it can either be active for all groups or none.

You can find it under Groups -> Settings -> “Inverted”


Awesome, thanks. This stuff requires quite some thinking^^
Another quick question: it’s not possible to use the keyword groups and then leave the keyword field empty if it is not Germany, e.g. specify an empty box like “”?

Just a remark to this: If you have a dynamic group searching for “keyword = Germany” and you add another dynamic group using the search-term “NOT(keywords=Germany)” you can still drag entries into the first group - however it is not possible to “unset” the keyword by dragging an entry from the “Germany” group into another group (For this you’ll have to right-click on the entry and select “Remove from Group”)

Edit: This should also answer your second question :wink:

cheers, it’s a really useful feature, but for me it’s not always easy to see the easiest way to implement what I need